Hemoglobin is a complex chemical compound of a protein with an iron element that is present in red blood cells. The function of hemoglobin in the human body is one of the most important - it is involved in the delivery of oxygen molecules to all tissues and organs of the body.
Oxygen is an indispensable element for the vital activity of a living being, it takes part in receiving and exchanging energy and carrying out reduction reactions. The action of hemoglobin is based on the capture of oxygen in the lungs, carrying out further oxidation and transfer it to all structures of the body.
When hemoglobin is lowered, it means the onset of oxygen depletion of all cells of the body and weakening of the immune system. In order to prevent lowering of hemoglobin in the blood below the norm, you need to know what to do with a lack of iron in the body. Let's look at when the level of hemoglobin in the blood decreases, what are its norms in different people and in what ways increase the lack of this substance in the home.
The state of health and human health depend on the level of hemoglobin in the blood. If hemoglobin indices are below normal, then we are talking about anemia, which is considered quite a formidable and dangerous disease.
The hemoglobin rate in the blood depends on the sex of the person:
- In children, the hemoglobin content is normal, as in adults: before birth, HbA is already beginning to be synthesized, which by the year of life almost replaces fetal hemoglobin, which served the child during fetal development.
- In women from 115 to 145 g / l (during pregnancy from 110 g / l);
- In men, from 130 to 160 g / l.
In terms of the decrease in hemoglobin, iron deficiency anemia can be of several degrees:
- light (hemoglobin content from 110 g / l to 90 g / l);
- medium (hemoglobin content from 90 g / l to 70 g / l);
- heavy (hemoglobin content less than 70 g / l).
Latent anemia (latent) also occurs. It is characterized by the normal presence of hemoglobin in red blood cells against the background of a decrease in serum iron. In this case, the symptoms of its decline appear quite clearly. This condition is often inherent in women during pregnancy.
Symptoms of low hemoglobin
In addition to the blood test, which immediately reveals a shortage of this essential protein in the body, there are a number of symptoms: from them you can independently assume a low level of hemoglobin in the blood.
In men and women, these are the signs:
- general weakness of the body, drowsiness;
- pale skin, sometimes it even seems “transparent”;
- lips bluish color;
- skin becomes dry and begins to peel off;
- in especially neglected cases, nails start to break and hair fall out;
- for children, the main signs of hemoglobin deficiency are frequent illnesses.
While recognizing the symptoms of low hemoglobin in adults, you can successfully bring it back to normal, without the help of doctors. But first, you need to know the causes that reduce the content of this important element in the blood.
Causes of Low Hemoglobin
Why is hemoglobin reduced in adults, what does it mean? The body can lose hemoglobin for various reasons. This happens most quickly with blood loss, both overt and hidden. Apparent bleeding occurs during heavy and prolonged menstruation in women (more than five days), hemorrhoids, various injuries, injuries or operations.
Poor nutrition with insufficient amounts of animal protein, vitamins and trace elements leads to iron deficiency anemia. Often low hemoglobin is found in people who promote vegetarianism or are on a diet for a long time. In childhood, anemia develops with unbalanced or malnourished.
Hidden bleeding is possible with some gastrointestinal diseases, pathologies of the female reproductive system (ovarian cyst, uterine myoma, etc.). Autoimmune diseases, infections or hereditary diseases can lead to a decrease in hemoglobin and a short life of red blood cells.
In adults, a decrease in hemoglobin concentration leads to the fact that the body does not receive the required amount of oxygen. The general condition of the patients is disturbed and the above complaints appear.
- The consequence of this may be a decrease in immunity and, as a result, an increase in the frequency of infectious diseases.
- In most cases, there is a person’s rapid fatigue and constant weakness.
- Anemia can cause deformity in human epithelial tissues — the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, the oral cavity, the gastrointestinal tract, and the upper protective layers of the skin.
- Often, anemia causes nervous system disorders: irritability, causeless mood swings appear, concentration of attention decreases.
In addition, with anemia, there may be such manifestations as cracks in the lips, severe muscle weakness, hair loss, brittle nails and addiction to special smells that other people seem unpleasant.
Low hemoglobin during pregnancy
Low hemoglobin during pregnancy is a common occurrence for future moms. A significant deviation from the norm can adversely affect the health of both the mother and the baby. This is fraught with the following complications:
- hypotonia of the uterus (reduction of the contractility of its muscles);
- hypoxia (oxygen starvation of the fetus);
- delay, and even cessation of growth and development of the fetus;
- low birth weight;
- disturbances in the respiratory and nervous systems.
In addition, many doctors believe that low hemoglobin in women during childbirth can negatively affect the health of the child in the future. Such children do not study well at school, they often get sick, suffer from various pathologies of internal organs. Therefore, if it is below normal during pregnancy, treatment under the supervision of a physician is extremely necessary.
How to increase hemoglobin?
What to do? In order to increase hemoglobin in the blood, you need to know the reason for his fall just in case. One may eat foods that increase hemoglobin (iron, B vitamins), but if they are not properly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, then success can not wait.
The main pathogenetic method of therapy is the administration of iron-containing drugs (Heferol, Ferroplex, Ferlatum, and others). As a rule, oral forms are prescribed, but in severe cases medications are recommended to be administered parenterally. Treatment of patients prone to intestinal dysfunction, provides for the simultaneous appointment of enzyme and enveloping drugs.
With good tolerability prescribed drugs they are used in maximum doses, followed by maintenance therapy with a decrease in dosage for several months. At the same time be sure to monitor the level of iron in red blood cells and serum. If necessary, also prescribe vitamin B12, B9 and ascorbic acid. In severe cases, resort to transfusion of whole blood or red blood cell mass.
Iron preparations with low hemoglobin in adults
Hemoglobin boosts are prescribed only by a doctor and, of course, under his strict control. This is due to the presence of side effects after medication, among which are: nausea, a feeling of irritability of the stomach, diarrhea, constipation and vomiting.
The following hemoglobin-boosting drugs are very common and popular:
- Sorbifer Durules;
- Ferrum Lek;
- Hemofer drops;
The course of treatment lasts from two weeks to three months. In this case, the visible result occurs approximately after 2-3 weeks of taking the medicine. If the composition is not ascorbic acid, it is necessary to additionally take vitamin C up to 0.3 g per day.
When detecting low hemoglobin and treatment with pills, it is prohibited to drink calcium-containing products at the same time, since they are antagonists. Therefore, iron can not be washed down with milk, green than coffee, either.
The products that promote alimentary therapy for low hemoglobin include:
- Varieties of red meat - rabbit, beef.
- White chicken meat.
- Beef tongue, beef liver.
- Egg yolks.
- Seafood, fish.
- Buckwheat and other cereals.
- Carrots, beets, dark green vegetables.
- Pomegranate, apples and berries with a high content of vitamin C.
In no case do not need to take such a diet with low hemoglobin too literally and switch to some proteins - it is difficult for the body to assimilate everything. Be sure to garnish the meat with vegetables and herbs, and for breakfast eat wholemeal porridge. As an adjunct to nutrition to increase hemoglobin, it is advisable to drink juices - grape, pomegranate, carrot, beetroot, apple.
At the same time to improve the absorption of iron should minimize the consumption of dairy products, fatty foods, flour products, green tea and coffee.