Basophils are blood cells, which are formed in the bone marrow, then they enter the bloodstream, circulating in it for several hours, and then sent to tissues, where they stay for 8-12 days.
This is the smallest leukocyte group, which is mainly involved in immediate-type allergic reactions.
When basophils are reduced in the blood of an adult, it indicates the presence of the disease - basopenia. Such a condition can be diagnosed when the content of basophils in the peripheral blood is less than 0.01 * 109 / l. It is problematic even for specialists to make concrete conclusions immediately, however, it is often a question of depleting the leukocyte stock in the body.
If basophils are lowered in an adult, the causes can be quite different, the most common ones will be discussed in this article.
The role of basophils in the body
Basophil formation occurs in the bone marrow, from where they enter the bloodstream and circulate in it for several hours. Further, the basophilic leukocytes migrate into the cellular tissues, remaining there from 8 to 12 days, where they perform their basic functions.
The main function of basophils is to detect and suppress allergens in time, to prevent them from spreading throughout the body and to call the rest of granulocytes to the site of inflammation.
Basophils are directly involved in allergic-type reactions. In addition, they can be found in thin capillaries, where they are responsible for the blood flow. Despite the fact that one of the functions of basophils is phagocytosis, their role in strengthening the immune system or protecting the body is extremely small. These white cells take an important part in the process of blood clotting and contribute to an increase in vascular permeability. They are also responsible for the contraction of certain muscle groups.
When blood is taken for a general blood test, the definition of basophils is known to be included in the calculation of a specific leukocyte formula.
Thus, the rate of basophils is indicated in the following indicators:
- Newborns - 0.75%
- Children at the age of 1 month - 0.5%
- One year old child - 0.6%
- Children aged 2 years - 0.7%
- Adults - from 0.5 to 1%
An increase in the number of basophil cells (when basophils are elevated in the blood — more than 0.2 * 109 / l) is called basophilia. The decrease in the number of basophil cells in peripheral blood (when it is lowered and the analysis shows less than 0.01 * 109 / l) is called basopenia.
Causes of low basophils
Why are basophils lowered in adults, what does that mean? The main reasons when basophils are diagnosed in the blood below the norm may be the following pathological conditions:
- infectious diseases;
- Cushing's disease;
- with regular stressful conditions;
- with allergies with vivid manifestations;
- with infectious diseases;
- with the active work of the thyroid gland;
- in diseases of the adrenal glands;
- with pneumonia;
- while taking some hormonal drugs.
It is worth noting that in the period of ovulation and pregnancy, these indicators can also be observed. Therefore, it is very important to make a diagnosis in the complex. It should be said that stressful situations can significantly reduce the content of basophils in the peripheral blood.
What if basophils are lowered
As in any other case, first of all, you should look for the root cause of this phenomenon. If such a disease is detected, the main therapy should be directed to fight with him, and after that the level of basophils will come to the necessary rate.
If there were no reasons for raising their level, then it is possible that this was due to a general weakening of the immunity, which means that all forces should be directed towards its strengthening.