Gonorrhea is a classic representative of the group of infectious diseases that are sexually transmitted. In women, this venereal disease due to the structure of the reproductive system proceeds with certain nuances.
Gonorrhea can be a serious danger to women's health, because without appropriate treatment with drugs, the disease becomes chronic, as a result of which infertility can develop against this background.
How can you get infected
According to the frequency of occurrence among venereal diseases, gonorrhea is inferior only to chlamydia. Very often both of these infections are detected at the same time. The causative agent of gonorrhea is the gonococcus bacterium, or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N.gonorrhoeae, neisseria).
Infection occurs, as a rule, through sexual contact from an infected partner. Domestic infection is unlikely. This is due to the fact that gonococcus dies quickly outside the human body, and for infection it is necessary that a sufficient number of microbes get into the body.
Therefore, the likelihood that the source of infection may be toilet seats, swimming pools, baths, general dishes and towels is negligible.
Gonococci infect mainly the urogenital system, which are lined with a cylindrical epithelium: the mucous membrane of the cervical canal and urethra, fallopian tubes, large vestibular and paraurethral glands. Gonorrheal proctitis may occur with genital-anal contacts, pharyngitis, stomatitis and tonsillitis with genital-oral gonorrhea.
Classic signs of female gonorrhea:
- frequent urination;
- burning and pain when urinating;
- mid-cycle bleeding;
- severe pain in the lower abdomen;
- purulent discharge of yellowish color from the vagina.
Often the disease is asymptomatic, or the signs of gonorrhea are so mild that they go unnoticed. As a result, the course of the disease becomes chronic.
Symptoms of gonorrhea in women
The incubation period is from 2 to 7 days. This means that the first symptoms of gonorrhea in women may appear as early as the first week after infection. If the immunity is very weak, the symptoms of the disease will appear within 24-48 hours (severely transferred infectious disease recently, treatment with steroids, chemotherapy, etc.).
Depending on the location of the infection, there are a number of specific symptoms of gonorrhea in women:
- Upper part of the genitourinary system. Here, gonorrhea manifests itself more clearly: the body temperature rises, constant aching pains in the lower abdomen are felt, the stool becomes liquid, and the menstrual cycle fails.
- The lower part of the urogenital system. Here the course of the disease often occurs asymptomatically or atypically for such infectious diseases. The main symptoms may be itching and burning sensation, discharge in the form of pus, swelling of the cervical canal.
- The common symptoms of tripper in women are described just above.
To diagnose and learn how to treat gonorrhea, the symptoms of the disease alone are not enough. If a clap is suspected, a smear from the vagina is taken from the woman and the disease is diagnosed using bacteriological analysis.
Infection with gonorrhea is dangerous during pregnancy, as it develops very quickly due to good blood supply to the urinary organs and a decrease in the body's defenses. In addition, most often the disease is asymptomatic.
If infection with gonococci occurs in the first trimester, then this leads to a spontaneous miscarriage due to the development of endometritis, in later periods various complications and postpartum pathologies arise.
Emergency prevention after unprotected intercourse
The earlier measures are taken, the lower the probability of infection:
- Immediately should urinate, if possible 2 times.
- Wash inner thighs and external genitals with soap and water.
- Enter 1–2 ml into the urethra, and no more than 5 ml of Miramistin or Betadine solution from the vial with a urological attachment into the vagina, but no later than 2 hours after the unprotected p / act.
- Treat the skin of the perineum and inner thighs with an antiseptic - solution of potassium permanganate (weak), Chlorhexidine or Miramistin.
Not later than 48 hours after unprotected contact contact a venereologist. After 14 days, it is recommended to pass smears for analysis of urogenital infections by PCR.
The main means of preventing tripper (gonorrhea), of course, is to refuse casual sex and use a condom in situations where you are not sure in advance about the health of your partner.
The quality of the condom is also of great importance, it should not be natural membrane, but only latex condoms (in the case of allergies - polyurethane).
The diagnosis of gonorrhea is confirmed by laboratory tests. Methods of provoking the disease are used in cases of suspected chronic and latent gonorrhea, when the pathogen is not identified in routine tests:
- chemical (lubrication of the urethra with 1 - 2% solution of silver nitrate, and the cervical canal with 2 - 5% solution);
- biological (introduction of the gonococcal vaccine and / or pyrogenal into the muscle);
- alimentary (alcohol, salty, spicy foods);
- thermal (conducting diathermy for 3 consecutive days - smears are taken three times one hour after physiotherapy);
- physiological (smear analysis during menstruation).
As a rule, combine 2 or more methods of provocation. Smears are taken three times in 24, 48, 72 hours.
Treatment of gonorrhea in women
With confirmed gonorrhea in women, the only way to treat is to prescribe antibacterial drugs. Apply the latest generation of antibiotics that can affect the gram-negative flora, which includes gonokokk.
In the acute phase, the most commonly prescribed are:
It must be borne in mind that gonococcus may have resistance to antibiotics, as well as the fact that the treatment of gonorrhea in women at different stages requires different dosages, so self-medication at home is unacceptable.
Treatment therapy usually lasts 7 to 10 days and is carried out for both partners. At this time, it is strictly forbidden to have sex and drink alcohol. It is important to strictly follow the scheme and not to give up therapy even with the disappearance of symptoms. The first stage is the destruction of pathogenic gonococci, and the second is the restoration of flora after antibacterial drugs.
To prevent the further spread of the disease, it is very important to identify the person who has become the source of infection, as well as those with whom he was ill in sexual or close household contact. All these people should be examined as soon as possible in order to, if necessary, start treatment in time.
Curing chronic gonorrhea is more difficult than acute. At this stage of the disease, periods of remission alternate with periods of exacerbation, at which deeper organ lesions occur and the further spread of the inflammatory process.
Therapy includes the use of antibiotics, immunostimulants and physical treatments. All is prescribed by the doctor strictly individually according to the results of the woman’s tests.
If the infection is concomitant, that is, in addition to gonorrhea, there are other venereal diseases (for example, chlamydia, trichomonas), then you need to prescribe a drug that acts simultaneously on two pathogens.